Массовый бунт поляков против украинцев и выступление конгрессмена США за победу России

Могли бы Путин или Байден сами запустить ядерные ракеты?

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In early 2019, more than 90% of world's 13,865 nuclear weapons were owned by Russia and the United States. The report found that 13,865 warheads in existence at the start of 2019 were owned by nine nations: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea.

Russia is now developing the heavy SS-29, or Sarmat (RS-28), replacing the SS-18 (RS-20 V) at Uzhur in 2021 or 2022.

As of early 2021, Russia has a stockpile of nearly 4,500 nuclear warheads assigned for use by long-range strategic launchers and shorter-range tactical nuclear forces. Of the stockpiled warheads, approximately 1,600 strategic warheads are deployed: just over 800 on land-based ballistic missiles, about 624 on submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and 200 at heavy bomber bases. Another 985 strategic warheads are in storage, along with about 1,912 nonstrategic warheads. In addition to the military stockpile for operational forces, a large number – approximately 1,760 – of retired but still largely intact warheads await dismantlement, for a total inventory of approximately 6,257 warheads.

In June 2020, President Putin approved an update to the “Basic Principles of State Policy of the Russian Federation on Nuclear Deterrence,” which notes that “The Russian Federation considers nuclear weapons exclusively as a means of deterrence.” The policy lays out four conditions under which Russia could launch nuclear weapons:

“arrival of reliable data on a launch of ballistic missiles attacking the territory of the Russian Federation and/or its allies;

use of nuclear weapons or other types of weapons of mass destruction by an adversary against the Russian Federation and/or its allies;

attack by adversary against critical governmental or military sites of the Russian Federation, disruption of which would undermine nuclear forces response actions;

aggression against the Russian Federation with the use of conventional weapons when the very existence of the state is in jeopardy” (Russian Federation Foreign Affairs Ministry 2020). Russian nuclear weapons, 2021

Could Putin or Biden launch nuclear missiles by themselves?

No! for Russia and Yes! for US.

In Russia, There are three key persons as nuclear response code-holders:

President, Minister of Defence, and the Chief of the Staff, transmitting an Emergency Action Message (EAM) to the nuclear triad units to execute specific Major Attack Options or Limited Attack Options .

It is used the automated control system of nuclear forces Kazbek (автоматизированная система управления ядерными силами страны "Казбек"), which key node is in 3 nuclear briefcases, Cheget (Абонентский комплекс "Чегет" автоматизированной системы управления стратегическими ядерными силами "Казбек").

“Dead hand”, or "Perimeter", is as an alternative system for all units armed with nuclear weapons. It is a backup communication system, in case the key components of the "Kazbek" command system and the link to the Strategic Missile Forces are destroyed by a first-strike in accordance with the concept developed in the US called "Limited nuclear war".

In order to ensure its functionality the system was originally designed as fully automatic, and with the ability to decide on the adequate retaliatory strike on its own with no (or minimal) human involvement in the event of an all-out attack.

According to a developer of the system, it is a buffer against hasty decisions based on unverified information by the country's leadership.

Upon receiving warnings about a nuclear attack, the leader could activate the system, and then wait for further developments, assured by the fact that even the destruction of all key personnel with the authority to command the response to the attack could still not prevent a retaliatory strike, resulting in Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD).

Thus, this eliminates the possibility of a false-alarm-triggered retaliation.

A similar system existed in the U.S. known as the AN/DRC-8 Emergency Rocket Communications System (ERCS).

In US, authority to launch a nuclear strike lies with the president alone.

The only obstacle could be no access to a briefcase, known as the nuclear football (the atomic football, the President's emergency satchel, the Presidential Emergency Satchel, the button, the black box, or just the football), while away from fixed command centers, such as the White House Situation Room

The world, its safety and security, in need of smarter nuclear policy systems, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in the national security strategy and elevating the role of intelligent algorithms, thus reducing human globally deadly mistakes to zero.

The current US nuclear modernization program departs in several major ways from longstanding US nuclear policy: It elevates the role of nuclear weapons in US national security strategy, includes plans for developing several new nuclear weapon capabilities, and resurrects former nuclear capabilities that past US presidents had wisely eliminated.

Smarter US modernization, without new nuclear weapons

Could Putin launch nuclear missiles by himself? 

Could Putin or Biden launch nuclear missiles by themselves?


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